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dnaoodb: professional biology database , biology encyclopedia

in biology, Hemerocallis (Latin:Hemerocallis L.) is a genus of perennial flowering plants in the family Asphodelaceae , subfamily Hemerocallidoideae. The roots are often fleshy; the leaves are basal and narrow; the scape is higher than the leaves and branched above, so the inflorescence is sometimes panicle-shaped; the perianth is funnel-shaped or bell-shaped, with anthers on its back; the capsule is split and leathery; the seeds are black when mature, bright.

There are about 16 species in the world and about 11 species in China . They are produced in various places. The flowers are yellow or orange-red and are beautiful for ornamental purposes. Among them, the flowers of Hemerocallis fulva L. can be eaten after being dried. , named daylily.

Scientific classification

Hemerocallis L.
Kingdom Plantae
Mode Of Reproduction:
Mode Of Reproduction:
Division Propagation


Hemerocallis are herbaceous clump-forming perennials growing from rhizomes, some produce spreading stolons. They have a fibrous or fibrous-tuberous root system with contractile roots. The tuberous roots are used to store nutrients and water. The arching leaves are produced from the base of the plant (basal) and lack petioles, they are strap-like, long, linear lanceolate leaves and grouped into opposite fans. The crown is the small portion between the leaves and the roots. The large showy flowers are produced on scapes. The slightly irregular shaped flowers are arranged in helicoid cymes, or produced solitarily. The scapes of some species and cultivars produce small leafy proliferations arising from the nodes or in bracts. The proliferations are clones that root when planted.

Typically Hemerocallis flowers have three similar petals and three sepals, collectively called tepals, and each have a midrib. The centermost part of the flower, called the throat, may be a different color than the more distal areas of the tepals. Each flower has six stamens joined to the perianth tube, each with a two-lobed anther. The unequal stamen filaments are curved upward with the linear-oblong anthers dorsifixed. The superior ovary is green, with three chambers and the stigma is 3-lobed or capitate. The fruit is a capsule (often erroneously called a pod since botanical pods are found in Fabaceae). The fruits may have no seeds (sterile), or many relatively large, shiny, black, roundish seeds. The flowers of most species open in early morning and wither during the following night, possibly replaced by another one on the same scape the next day. Some species are night-blooming. The haploid number of chromosomes is eleven.


The name Hemerocallis comes from the Greek words ἡμέρα (hēmera) "day" and καλός (kalos) "beautiful".

Distribution And Habitat

Hemerocallis species are native to Asia, primarily eastern Asia, including China, Korea, Japan and southern Siberia. This genus is popular worldwide because of the showy flowers and hardiness of many kinds. There are over 80,000 registered cultivars. Hundreds of cultivars have fragrant flowers, and more scented cultivars are appearing more frequently in northern hybridization programs. Some earlier blooming cultivars rebloom later in the season, particularly if their capsules, in which seeds are developing, are removed.[citation needed]

Daylilies have been found growing wild for millennia throughout China, Mongolia, northern India, Korea, and Japan. There are thousand-year-old Chinese paintings showing orange daylilies that are remarkably similar to the flowers that grace modern gardens.

Daylilies may have been first brought to Europe by traders along the silk routes from Asia. However it was not until 1753 that daylilies were given their botanic name of Hemerocallis by the Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus.

Daylilies were first brought to North America by early European immigrants, who packed the roots along with other treasured possessions for the journey to the New World. By the early 1800s, the plant had become naturalized, and a bright orange clump of flowers was a common sight in many homestead gardens.

The orange or tawny daylily (Hemerocallis fulva), common along roadsides in much of North America, is native to Asia. Along with the lemon lily (Hemerocallis flava), it is the foundational species for most modern cultivars.


As popular as daylilies were for many hundreds of years, it was not until the late 19th century that botanists and gardeners began to experiment with hybridizing the plants. Over the next hundred years, thousands of different hybrids were developed from only a few wild varieties. In fact, most modern hybrids are descended from two types of daylily. One is Hemerocallis flava—the yellow lemon lily. The other is Hemerocallis fulva, the familiar tawny-orange daylily, also known affectionately as the "ditch lily".

The daylily has been nicknamed "the perfect perennial" by gardeners, due to its brilliant colors, ability to tolerate drought and frost and to thrive in many different climate zones, and for being generally low maintenance. It is a vigorous perennial that lasts for many years in a garden, with very little care and adapts to many different soil and light conditions. Daylilies have a relatively short blooming period, depending on the type. Some will bloom in early spring while others wait until the summer or even autumn. Most daylily plants bloom for 1 through 5 weeks, although some bloom twice in one season ("rebloomers)". Daylilies are not commonly used as cut flowers for formal flower arranging, yet they make good cut flowers otherwise, as new flowers continue to open on cut stems over several days.


For medicinal, edible and ornamental purposes. The famous dried food daylily (also called daylily) is a plant of this genus, mainly made from the flowers of daylily, which are steamed and sun-dried. Most types of flowers are edible (but you shouldn’t eat too much of them when they’re fresh).

The roots of this plant are poisonous, but they can be used as medicine. They have the effects of clearing away heat, diuresis, cooling blood and stopping bleeding. But it should be used with caution to avoid accidents.


The chromosome number of most plants in this genus is 2n=22, and only H. fulva var. kwanso has 2n=33. Due to long-term cultivation and easy hybridization in horticulture, there are many varieties, including some natural hybrids. Judging from the records of cultivation and the investigation by the editorial board of Flora of China, the size and color of flowers, the length and thickness of perianth tubes, the width, texture and phenological stage of leaves of some species all have great changes. , identification is even more difficult on dry specimens. It brings great difficulties to classification work.

Based on the existing materials and field survey results, the editorial board of Flora of China has temporarily divided the species native to China into 11 species. Many problems have not yet been resolved and can only be left in doubt for future research

Hemerocallis genus has made certain progress in the research of chemical components and functions. As of 2017, flavonoids, anthraquinones, alkaloids, terpenes, triterpenes and their glycosides, Caffeoylquinic acid derivatives, naphthyl glycosides, steroids and their glycosides, phenylethanoid glycosides, lignans and other types of compounds. Functional activities are mainly manifested in sedation and hypnosis, antidepressant, antioxidant, antitumor, hepatoprotective, antibacterial and insecticidal. Hemerocallis phytochemicals have a wide variety of chemical components, rich structural types, and have a variety of significant functional activities, which are worthy of further research.


Cameraria Boehm.

Lilioasphodelus Fabr.