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dnaoodb: professional biology database , biology encyclopedia

in biology, Cuon Single species. Jackals are similar in appearance to dogs and wolves, and smaller than wolves, with a body length of about 100 centimeters and a weight of more than 10 kilograms. The body hair is reddish brown or gray brown, mixed with a small amount of guard hairs with dark brown tips, and the belly color is lighter. The limbs are shorter. The ears are short and rounded at the ends. The tail is longer. The forehead is raised, the nose is long, and the muzzle is short, wide and square. The back hair on the whole body is short, the tail hair is slightly longer, the tail shape is thick, and the tail end is black.

Jackals are typical mountain animals that inhabit mountain grasslands, subalpine meadows and mountain sparse forests. They often live in groups and camp for safari. They are alert and have a well-developed sense of smell. They are most active in the morning and dusk. It is very ferocious and likes to chase. After finding prey, it gathers together to hunt. It mainly preys on medium-sized hoofed animals such as roe deer, musk deer, and sheep. They mate in autumn and give birth in winter. The gestation period is about 60 days, with 3 to 4 babies per litter.

Scientific classification

Protection level:
Subphylum Vertebrata
Class Mammalia
Reproductive Form:
Sexual Reproduction
Mode Of Reproduction:

Living Habits

Because of their wide distribution throughout history, they inhabit a variety of habitats. They can survive almost from the poles to the tropics, and can be found from coasts to mountains. It can withstand both cold and heat, but its main habitat is the forested mountains and hills in the south.

They live in groups, ranging from 2 to 3, usually 7 to 8, or even 10 or more. They hunt in groups, often in sieges, and they can deal with almost all mammals, large and small, that are distributed in the same territory. The nest area covers 40 square kilometers, and predatory activities often cover more than 15 square kilometers. However, when the female is raising her cubs, the area is only about 11 square kilometers. It is more active in the morning and dusk and has a ferocious personality. It often hunts large and medium-sized ungulates such as muntjacs, deer, musk deer, serows, gorals, takin and wild boars for food. There are mostly male animals in the community, with a sex ratio of 2:1. The estrus period varies slightly with different regions and climates. The earliest one is in autumn, and the later one is in winter. The gestation period is about two months, and pups are born in winter or late winter or early spring. Each litter can range from 3-4 babies to 8-9 babies. The size of the reproductive capacity depends on the quality of the natural environment and the abundance of animal resources, and it often maintains a relative balance with the prey. The cubs will go out with the adults after 70-80 days. At the age of 5 months, they will start to hunt and learn hunting skills. At the age of 8 months, they can hunt independently. They are sexually mature at 2-5 years old, but whether they can reproduce depends on their order and density in the community. The life span is about 10 years old.

Countdown To Extinction

1. Since the natural environment has been damaged to varying degrees in various places, habitat and hiding conditions have been lost, and the number of various types of wild animals being eaten is gradually decreasing, making it difficult to hunt. In modern times, jackals have been forced to expand their range of activities to villages and steal livestock. In modern times, people have hunted jackals as pests, causing them to be endangered everywhere.

2. Due to translation errors, some conservation agencies and zoos mistakenly breed jackals as jackals, causing the real jackals to quietly become extinct.


There are 11 subspecies, widely distributed throughout the mainland of North Asia, South Asia and Southeast Asia. It is similar in size to a dog but smaller than a wolf, with a body length of 85 to 130 cm, a tail length of 45 to 50 cm, and a weight of 10 to 20 kg. The snout is shorter than the wolf, the head is wider, the ears are short and round, and the body is shorter than the wolf. The limbs are short and the tail is slightly longer than that of a wolf, but not more than half the body length. Its fur is long and dense, slightly like a fox's tail. The back hair is reddish brown with black tips, and the belly hair is lighter. There are only 2 lower molars on each side. It can withstand both cold and heat, but its main habitat is the forested mountains and hills in the south. They live in groups, ranging from 2 to 3, usually 7 to 8, or even 10 or more animals, mostly males, with a sex ratio of 2:1. They hunt in groups, often in sieges, and they can deal with almost all mammals, large and small, that are distributed in the same territory. The life span is about 10 years old. Although it is widely distributed, its number is rare. It is a national second-level protected animal in my country, CITES Appendix II, and IUNC is vulnerable.

1.Cuon Alpinus alpinus -- named subspecies, eastern Russia

2.Cuon Alpinus adustus -- Burmese subspecies, Burma, Indochina

3.Cuon Alpinus dukhunensis -- Indian subspecies

4.Cuon Alpinus fumosus -- West Sichuan species, western China, Mongolia

5.Cuon Alpinus hesperius -- Far Eastern subspecies, Russia, China

6.Cuon Alpinus infuscus -- Indochinese subspecies, Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam

7.Cuon Alpinus javanocus -- subspecies Java

8.Cuon Alpinus laniger -- Kashmiri subspecies, Kashmir, Tibet

9.Cuon Alpinus lepturus -- Chinese subspecies, Yangtze River Basin

10.Cuon Alpinus primaevus -- Himalayan subspecies, Tibet, Nepal, Bhutan

11.Cuon Alpinus sumatrensis -- Sumatran subspecies